111 Semiconductor Crystals

Semiconductor Crystals

In the next few years, the third generation semiconductor materials represented by gallium nitride and silicon carbide will achieve breakthroughs in material growth, device preparation and other technologies, and be applied to 5g base stations, new energy vehicles, UHV, data centers and other new infrastructure scenarios, greatly reducing the overall energy consumption.

The two most commonly used semiconductors for electronic circuits are the group IV elements silicon and germanium. Silicon and germanium need lower energy to break their covalent bonds in crystals. This is the main reason why these two semiconductors are most commonly used.

Non fourth group elements can also form diamond-like crystals by pairing atoms with eight valence electrons. Such pairing can also be formed by selecting atoms in groups III and V, II and VI. For example, gallium arsenide for high-speed microelectronic equipment (including satellite and optical fiber communication systems) and CdTe for common silicon-based photovoltaic devices.

We can provide Si, Ge, Ge, SiC, ZnO, GaAs and other semiconductor crystals.

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  [0] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(1) "7"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(2) "Si"
    ["brief"] => string(0) ""
    ["application"] => string(164) "Crystalline silicon material is the most important photovoltaic material, and it will still be the mainstream material of solar cells for a long time in the future."
    ["content"] => string(19470) "<table width="595" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Cubic</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Melting Point</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">1420℃</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Density</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">2.4<span style="font-family:宋体">(</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">g/cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">3</span></sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">)</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:4px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Dopant</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Undoped</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="128" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Boron</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="144" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px;text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Phosphorus</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:3px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size: 14px">Conduction Type</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px;text-align:center"><span style="font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size: 14px">I</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="128" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">P</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="144" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family: &#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size: 14px">N</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:3px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Resistivity</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="margin-left:24px;text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">1000Ωcm</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="128" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">-3</span></sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">~1000Ωcm</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="144" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">-3</span></sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">~1000Ωcm</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:3px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">EPD</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px;text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤100∕cm</span><sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">2</span></sup></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="128" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤100∕cm</span><sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">2</span></sup></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="144" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤100∕cm</span><sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">2</span></sup></p></td></tr><tr style="height:3px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Oxygen Content<span style="font-family:宋体">(</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">∕cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">3</span></sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">)</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤1~1.8×10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">18</span></sup></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="128" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px;text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤1~1.8×10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">18</span></sup></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="144" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤1~1.8×10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">18</span></sup></p></td></tr><tr style="height:3px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Carbon Content<span style="font-family:宋体">(</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">∕cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">3</span></sup><span style="font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">)</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px;text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤5×10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">16</span></sup></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="128" valign="top"><p style="text-indent:28px;text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤5×10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">16</span></sup></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="144" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">≤5×10</span><sup><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px;vertical-align:super">16</span></sup></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Dimension</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">5x5mm ,10×10mm</span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:14px">,</span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">&nbsp;20×20mm</span></p><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Ø50.8mm, Ø76.2mm, Ø100mm</span></p><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Thickness</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">0.5mm<span style="font-family:宋体">、</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">1.0mm</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Dimension Tolerance</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">&lt;±0.1mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Thickness</span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">&nbsp;Tolerance</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">&lt;±0.025mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Polishing</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">One side or two sides</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Orientation Tolerance</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">±0.5°</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Edge Orientation Accuracy</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">2° </span><span style="font-family:宋体;font-size:14px">(</span><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Special requirements can reach within 1°)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Orientation</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">&lt;100&gt;<span style="font-family:宋体">、</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">&lt;110&gt;<!--110--><!--110--><!--110--><!--110--></span><span style="font-family:宋体">、</span><span style="font-family:Times New Roman">&lt;111&gt;<!--111--><!--111--><!--111--><!--111--></span><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Package</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style=";font-family:&#39;Times New Roman&#39;;font-size:14px">Class 100 clean bag, Class 1000 super clean room</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(437) "<p>Dimension</p><p>5x5mm ,10×10mm, 20×20mm; Ø50.8mm, Ø76.2mm, Ø100mm</p><p>According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.</p><p><br/></p><p>Thickness</p><p><span style="white-space:pre"></span>0.5mm、1.0mm</p><p><br/></p><p>Dimension Tolerance<span style="white-space:pre"></span></p><p>&lt;±0.1mm</p><p>Thickness Tolerance</p><p><span style="white-space:pre"></span>&lt;±0.025mm</p>"
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    ["id"] => string(1) "6"
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    ["title"] => string(2) "Ge"
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    ["application"] => string(163) "The high-quality Ge substrates can be used in concentrated photovoltaic(CPV), outer-space solar-cell panel and high-bright light-emitting diode(LED) applications."
    ["content"] => string(17941) "<table width="595" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Growth Method</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Czochralski</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Cubic</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">a=5.65754 Å &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Density</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">5.323(g/cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Melt Point</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">937.4℃</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Doping Element</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">no </span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Sb</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ga</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Type</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">/</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">N</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">P</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Resistivity</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">35Ωcm</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p style="text-indent: 28px"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.01~35 Ωcm</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.05~35 Ωcm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">EPD</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:=""><<span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">4×10</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">∕cm2</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:=""><<span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">4×10</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">∕cm2</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="136" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:=""><<span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">4×10</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">∕cm2</span></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:11px"><td rowspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dimension</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">10x3mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">10x5mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">10x10mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">15x15mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">20x15mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">20x20mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:10px"><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dia50.8 mm ,dia76.2mm, Dia100 mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thickness</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.5mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">1.0mm</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Polishing</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">One side or two sides</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Orientation</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">&lt;100&gt;<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">&lt;110&gt;<!--110--><!--110--><!--110--></span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">&lt;111&gt;<!--111--><!--111--><!--111--></span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">±0.5º</span><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Plane Orientation Accuracy</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">±0.5°</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Edge Orientation Accuracy</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">2°<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">Special requirements can reach within 1°</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Bevel Wafer</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">According to specific requirements, wafers with edge-oriented crystal planes inclined at a specific angle (inclination angle 1°-45°) can be processed. </span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Surface Roughness</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">Ra≤5Å<span style="font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">5×5µm</span><span style="font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Package</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Class 100 clean bag, Class 1000 super clean room</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(263) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Dimension</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">5x5mm,10x10mm,20x20mm,30x30mm , Ø50.8 mm</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Thickness<br/></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">0.5mm,1.0mm</span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(760) "<p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px">Germanium has good semiconductor properties. High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors, and pentavalent elements (such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus) are doped to obtain N-type germanium semiconductors. They have high electron mobility and high hole mobility.</span></p><p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px">The high-quality Ge substrates can be used in concentrated&nbsp;photovoltaic(CPV), outer-space solar-cell panel and high-bright light-emitting diode(LED) applications. </span></p>"
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    ["sort"] => string(4) "1402"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(23) "Germanium(Ge) substrate"
    ["meta_key"] => string(30) "Germanium wafer, p-type,n-type"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(249) "CasCrysTech(CCT) provides Germanium. It has good semiconductor properties. High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors, and pentavalent elements (such as antimony."
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    ["feature"] => string(354) "Germanium has good semiconductor properties. High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors, and pentavalent elements (such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus) are doped to obtain N-type germanium semiconductors. They have high electron mobility and high hole mobility."
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  [2] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(1) "8"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(3) "SiC"
    ["brief"] => string(0) ""
    ["application"] => string(389) "N-type silicon carbide substrate material is an essential material to support the development of the power electronics industry.
It can be used in high-frequency electronic devices, electric vehicle power control unit(PCU), photovoltaic inverter, rail transit power control system and other fields, and can play a role of reducing volume simplification system and improving power density."
    ["content"] => string(17649) "<table width="595" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td colspan="4" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: windowtext;" width="595" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><strong><span style="font-size: 14px;">Parameters</span></strong></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Growth Method</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-width: 1px; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Seed crystal sublimation method, PVT (Physical gas phase transfer)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Hexagonal</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">a=3.08 Å, c=15.08 Å &nbsp;</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Marshalling Sequence</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">ABCACB(6H),</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" color:="" font-size:="" background:="" none="" repeat="" scroll="">&nbsp;ABCBABCB(4H)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Band gap</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">2.93 eV </span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">Mohs&nbsp;Hardness</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">9.2 </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">mohs)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">Thermal Conductivity&nbsp;@300K</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">5 (W/ cmK)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dielectric Constant</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">e(11)=e(22)=9.66 &nbsp;e(33)=10.33</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Conductor Type</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="204" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">I</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-width: 1px; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="204" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">N</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dopant</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="102" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Undoped</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="102" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Vanadium</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-width: 1px; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="204" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Nitrogen</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Resistivity <span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">ohm.cm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="102" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">˃ 1 x 10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">7</span></sup></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="102" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">˃ 1 x 10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">5</span></sup></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="204" valign="top"><p style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.01-0.2</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:11px"><td rowspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dimension</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">5x5mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">10x10mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">15x15mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">20x20mm</span></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:10px"><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ø50.8, Ø100 mm, Ø150mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thickness</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.33/0.35/0.5mm,</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Polishing </span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">One side or two sides</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Orientation</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">&lt;0001&gt;or &nbsp;&lt;0001&gt;off 4.0º<!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Orientation Tolerance</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">±0.5°</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Edge Orientation Accuracy</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">2°<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">Special requirements can reach within 1°</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Surface Roughness</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ra&lt;5Å<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">5×5μm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Package</span></p></td><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="408" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Class 100 clean bag, Class 1000 super clean room</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(768) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Dimension</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><span style="font-size: 16px;">5x5mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span>10x10mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span>15x15mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">,</span>20x20mm;&nbsp;</span>Ø50.8, Ø100 mm, Ø150mm</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;"><br/></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Thickness</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: normal;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">0.33/0.35/0.5mm,</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.<br/></span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(974) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">N-type silicon carbide substrate material is an essential material to support the development of the power electronics industry. Its outstanding physical characteristics such as high-pressure resistance and high-frequency resistance can be widely used in high-power high-frequency electronic devices, electric vehicle PCU, photovoltaic inverter, rail transit power control system and other fields, and can play a role of reducing volume simplification system and improving power density.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: Mulish, Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;"><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">CasCrysTech (CCT) provides high quality SiC(Silicon Carbide) crystal substrate&nbsp;which can be customized upon customer&#39;s requirements.</span></span></span></p>"
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  [3] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(1) "9"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(3) "ZnO"
    ["brief"] => string(0) ""
    ["application"] => string(266) "Luminescent material for ultraviolet and visible light.
High electric field equipment;
High temperature and high energy electronic devices.
High-efficiency semiconductor photoelectronic devices, semiconductor photocatalysis, and diluted magnetic semiconductors."
    ["content"] => string(13341) "<table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Hexagonal</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">a=3.252Å &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;c=5.313 Å</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:13px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Density</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">5.7<span style="font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">g/cm</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Growth Method </span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Hydrothermal</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Mhos Hardness </span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">4<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">mohs</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Melting Point</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">1975℃</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:11px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="color: rgb(34, 34, 34); font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thermal Expansion </span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">//a 6.5 x 10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">-6</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;/K &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;//c 3.7 x 10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">-6</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;/K</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Heat Capacity</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.125 cal /gm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thermal-Electric Constant</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">1200 mv/K@ 300 ℃</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thermal Conductivity</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.006 cal/cmK</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Transmittance</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.4-0.6 um &gt; 50% at 2mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Orientation</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">&lt;0001&gt;<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">&lt;11-20&gt;<!--11-20--><!--11-20--><!--11-20--><!--11-20--><!--11-20--><!--11-20--></span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">&lt;10-10&gt;±0.5º<!--10-10--><!--10-10--><!--10-10--><!--10-10--><!--10-10--><!--10-10--></span><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--><!--0001--></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">D</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">imension</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">25×25×0.5mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">10×10×0.5mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">10×5×0.5mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">5×5×0.5mm</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Surface Roughness</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ra&lt;5Å<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">(</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: Times New Roman;">5×5μm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Atomic Particle Microscopy (AFM) test report can be provided.</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Polishing</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="center"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">One side or two sides</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Package</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Class&nbsp;100&nbsp;clean bag,&nbsp;Class&nbsp;1000&nbsp;super clean room</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table>"
    ["content2"] => string(245) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Dimension</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">25×25×0.5mm、10×10×0.5mm、10×5×0.5mm、5×5×0.5mm</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Costomized upon customer requirements.<br/></span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(2997) "<p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a good substrate </span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">for </span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">GaN thin film</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">. It&nbsp;has </span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">large&nbsp;exciton&nbsp;binding&nbsp;energy&nbsp;of&nbsp;60&nbsp;meV</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">and a bandwidth of 3.73 eV at room temperature, making it a luminescent material for ultraviolet and visible light.&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">D</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">ue to the transparency in the visible region</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;the large electrome</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">-</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">chanical coupling coefficient</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;and the properties of </span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">adsorption</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;and desorption</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;of gas molecules on its surface</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">, i</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">t is expected to be used in energy limiters with high peak energy, GaN substrates</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;with large size and high quality</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">, and wireless communications</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;which beyond 5GHz in the future,</span><span style="font-size: 14px; background: rgb(255, 255, 255) none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">&nbsp;high electric field equipment, high temperature and high energy electronic devices etc.</span></span></p>"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(26) "Zinc oxide (ZnO) substrate"
    ["meta_key"] => string(64) "Large exciton binding energy,luminescent material,GaN substrates"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(241) "Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a good substrate for GaN thin film. Large exciton binding energy of 60 meV,bandwidth of 3.73 eV,luminescent material for ultraviolet and visible light, energy limiters with high peak energy. CasCrysTech(CCT) provides ZnO."
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Transparent in the visible region;
Large electrome-chanical coupling coefficient."
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  [4] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(2) "10"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(4) "GaAs"
    ["brief"] => string(0) ""
    ["application"] => string(306) "Gallium arsenide(GaAs) can be used to make microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers and solar cells. GaAs is often used as the base material for the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors, including indium gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide, and so on."
    ["content"] => string(13623) "<table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Single </span><span style="font-size: 14px;">C</span><span style="font-size: 14px;">rystal</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">D</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">oping</span></span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Conductivity Type</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">Carrier Concentration (cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">-3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">Dislocation Density (cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">-2</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">G</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">rowth Method</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Standard Substrate</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:4px"><td rowspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">GaAs</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">None</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Si</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">/</span></p></td><td rowspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;5×10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">5</span></sup></span></p></td><td rowspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">LEC</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">HB</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dia3″</span></p></td><td rowspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dia3″×0.5</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dia2″×0.5</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:4px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Si</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">N</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&gt;5×10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">17</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:4px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Cr</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Si</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">/</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:4px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Fe</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">N</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">~2×10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">18</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:4px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Zn</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">P</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="81" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&gt;5×10</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">17</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Dimension</span></p></td><td colspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">25×25×0.5mm<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: " times="" new="">10×10×0.5mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: " times="" new="">10×5×0.5mm</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">、</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: " times="" new="">5×5×0.5mm</span></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.</span></p></td></tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Surface Roughness</span></p></td><td colspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">Surface roughness(Ra):&lt;=5Å<br/>Atomic Particle Microscopy (AFM) test report can be provided.</span></p></td></tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Polishing</span></p></td><td colspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">One side or two sides</span></p></td></tr><tr><td colspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="187" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Package</span></p></td><td colspan="5" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="381" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Class 100 clean bag, Class 1000 super clean room</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(526) "<p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: normal;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">25×25×0.5mm<span style="font-family: 宋体;">、</span>10×10×0.5mm<span style="font-family: 宋体;">、</span>10×5×0.5mm<span style="font-family: 宋体;">、</span>5×5×0.5mm</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; white-space: normal;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">According to customer needs, substrates with special orientation and size can be customized.</span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(1112) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound synthesized by two elements of gallium and arsenic. It is an important group IIIA and group VA compound semiconductor material.&nbsp;</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Gallium arsenide(GaAs) can be used to make microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers and solar cells. GaAs is often used as the base material for the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors, including indium gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide, and so on.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">The advantages include:</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">▪ Very high electron mobility.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">▪ GaAs cells are relatively insensitive to heat compare to silicon cells. Hence it offers high thermal stability.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">▪ Lower noise.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">▪ Operates over wide temperature range.</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 14px;">▪ High efficiency and resistance to radiation.</span></p>"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(23) "Gallium arsenide (GaAs)"
    ["meta_key"] => string(122) "high electron mobility, high thermal stability,lower noise,wide temperature range,High efficiency,resistance to radiation."
    ["meta_desc"] => string(165) "Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound synthesized by two elements of gallium and arsenic. It is an important group IIIA and group VA compound semiconductor material."
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    ["feature"] => string(260) "▪ Very high electron mobility.
▪ GaAs cells are relatively insensitive to heat compare to silicon cells. Hence it offers high thermal stability.
▪ Lower noise.
▪ Operates over wide temperature range.
▪ High efficiency and resistance to radiation."
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