111 Laser crystals

Laser Crystals

Laser crystals are the working substance of the crystal laser, which can transform the energy provided by the outside into the coherent laser with high parallelism and monochromaticity in space and time through the optical resonator. They are composed of active ions and matrix crystals, doped with different active ions and widely used in industrial, medical, military and scientific research fields in different wavelength bands. The most widely used laser crystals include Ti:Al2O3, Yb:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, etc. 

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  [0] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(1) "1"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(8) "Ti:Al2O3"
    ["brief"] => string(138) "Titanium-doped sapphire (Ti3+:Al2O3) crystal is the most widely used tunable laser solid material, with excellent laser characteristics..."
    ["application"] => string(102) "Protontherapy
Accelerator Physics 
Nuclear Physics
Infrared Spectroscopy
“Cold” Micromachining"
    ["content"] => string(16328) "<p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px">Titanium-doped sapphire (Ti<sup>3+</sup>:Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) crystal is the most widely used tunable laser solid material, with excellent laser characteristics –the wide emission bandwidth (spanning 0.65 ~ 1.2</span><span style=";font-family:SSJ0+ZCbIZY-2;font-size:14px">μ</span><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px">m) <span style="font-family:SSJ0+ZCbIZY-2">, </span><span style="font-family:Arial">excellent thermal, optical, physical, chemical and mechanical properties. </span></span><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px">Ti:Sapphire lasers&nbsp;and based on them&nbsp;laser systems&nbsp;are unsurpassed in its extraordinary breadth of performance and resulting diversity of </span><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px">applications, such as proton therapy, accelerator physics, nuclear physics, infrared spectroscopy, and materials characterization. &nbsp;CCT produces high quality titanium doped sapphire laser crystals by using superior material quality and then applying precision optical manufacturing techniques. The size can be ϕ160mm according to customer requirements.</span></p><p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><br/></p><table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top-width: 1px; border-top-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top-width: 1px; border-top-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Hexagonal</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">a = 4.758 Å, c = 12.991 Å</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Thermal Conductivity</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: 宋体;font-size: 14px">&gt;</span><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">20 (W/mK)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Mohs Hardness</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">9 (mohs)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Density</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">3.98 (g/cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px;vertical-align: super">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Concentration</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">0.05-0.5 wt%</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Absorption Band / Peak</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">400-600 nm / 490nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Absorption Coefficient</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">0.5-5 cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px;vertical-align: super">-1</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">&nbsp;at 490nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">FOM Value </span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">100~300</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Tuned Range /</span><span style="font-family: 宋体;font-size: 14px">&nbsp;</span></p><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Emission Peak</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">660-1050nm / </span></p><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">760nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Refractive Index</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">1.76 @ 800 nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Decay Lifetime</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style=";line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">3.2μs (T = 300 K)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Diameter</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: 宋体;font-size: 14px">3</span><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">~220mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Thickness</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">1~80mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Cutting</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Flat, Brewster ends or custom specified</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Orientation</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">c axis [0001] or custom specified</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Flatness</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">0.1-0.2 λ @633nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">Parallelism</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">15 arcsec</span></p></td></tr><tr><td width="171" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">S/D</span></p></td><td width="190" valign="center" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-left: none; border-right: none; border-top: none; border-bottom-width: 1px; border-bottom-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-top:7px;margin-bottom:7px;margin-top:auto;margin-bottom:auto;line-height:24px"><span style="font-family: Arial;font-size: 14px">20/10 scratch/dig</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p><p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px"></span></p><p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px"></span></p><p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px"></span></p><p style=";text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph"><span style=";font-family:Arial;font-size:14px"></span></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(52) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">3~220mm</span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(1216) "<p><span style="text-align: justify; font-family: Arial; font-size: 14px;">Titanium-doped sapphire (Ti<sup>3+</sup>:Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) crystal is the most widely used tunable laser solid material, with excellent laser characteristics –the wide emission bandwidth (spanning 0.65 ~ 1.2</span><span style="text-align: justify; font-size: 14px;">μ</span><span style="text-align: justify; font-family: Arial; font-size: 14px;">m)&nbsp;,&nbsp;excellent thermal, optical, physical, chemical and mechanical properties.&nbsp;</span><span style="text-align: justify; font-family: Arial; font-size: 14px;">Ti:Sapphire lasers&nbsp;and based on them&nbsp;laser systems&nbsp;are unsurpassed in its extraordinary breadth of performance and resulting diversity of&nbsp;</span><span style="text-align: justify; font-family: Arial; font-size: 14px;">applications, such as proton therapy, accelerator physics, nuclear physics, infrared spectroscopy, and materials characterization. &nbsp;CCT produces high quality titanium doped sapphire laser crystals by using superior material quality and then applying precision optical manufacturing techniques. The size can be ϕ160mm according to customer requirements.</span></p>"
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    ["sort"] => string(4) "1101"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(43) "Ti:Sapphlre(Ti doped sapphire) lase crystal"
    ["meta_key"] => string(140) "Ti:Sapphire, laser crystal, Ti doped sapphire, Ti:Al2O3,d tunable laser, high fom, hem sapphire, high concentration, wide emission bandwidth"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(256) "Titanium-doped sapphire is a tunable laser crystal with excellent thermal, optical, physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Can be used in proton therapy, accelerator physics, nuclear physics, and infrared spectroscopy. The large size can be ϕ160mm."
    ["model"] => string(0) ""
    ["feature"] => string(97) "High FOM
Large Size and Highly Doped
High Damage Threshold
Customized Brewster's Angle & Plano"
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  [1] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(2) "30"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(6) "Yb:YAG"
    ["brief"] => string(171) "Ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) crystal is a promising laser material.
The crystal is more suitable for diode pumped laser system than other traditional neodymium doped YAG."
    ["application"] => string(170) "Ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) crystal is a promising laser material. The crystal is more suitable for diode pumped laser system than other traditional neodymium doped YAG."
    ["content"] => string(8740) "<table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Cubic</span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">12.01 Å</span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Density </span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">4.56<span style="font-family: 宋体;">±</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="">0.04</span></span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;(g/cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Melt Point</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">197</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">0℃</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Mohs Hardness</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); word-break: break-all;"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">8.5</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">(<span style="font-family: " times="" new="">mohs</span><span style="font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Specific Heat Capacity</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-left: 0;text-indent: 0"><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0-</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">2</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">0</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">℃</span><span style="font-family: 微软雅黑; font-size: 14px;">)</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">0.59 J/g.cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">3</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:20px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Elastic modulus</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">310 GPa</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:9px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Young&#39;s modulus </span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">3.17X104Kg/mm</span><sup><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">2</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Poisson&#39;s ratio</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-left: 0;text-indent: 0"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.3 (est.)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Tensile strength</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.13~0.26 GPa</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td valign="center" rowspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thermal Expansion</span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">&lt;100&gt;(0~250°C )<!--100--><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--></span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Direction: 8.2x10-6 /°C</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;1</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">1</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">0&gt;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0~250</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">)</span></span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">7.7x10-6/</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;1</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">11</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&gt;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0~250</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">)</span></span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">7.7x10-6/</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C&nbsp;</span></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table>"
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    ["content_detail"] => string(681) "<p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) crystal is a promising laser material. The crystal is more suitable for diode pumped laser system than other traditional neodymium doped YAG. Compared with Nd doped YAG crystal, ytterbium doped YAG has much wider absorption bandwidth, which reduces the thermal control requirements in the design of diode laser.&nbsp;It has a long lifetime of high laser energy level, and the heat load per unit pump power is 3-4 times lower. Ytterbium doped YAG crystal is expected to replace neodymium doped YAG crystal for high-power diode lasers and other related applications.</span></p>"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(36) "Ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) crystal"
    ["meta_key"] => string(78) "Ytterbium doped YAG,Yb:YAG, diode pumped laser system,photo optic applications"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(170) "Ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) crystal is a promising laser material.
The crystal is more suitable for diode pumped laser system than other traditional neodymium doped YAG"
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    ["feature"] => string(278) "Compared with Nd doped YAG crystal, ytterbium doped YAG has much wider absorption bandwidth, which reduces the thermal control requirements in the design of diode laser. It has a long lifetime of high laser energy level, and the heat load per unit pump power is 3-4 times lower."
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  [2] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(2) "31"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(6) "Nd:YAG"
    ["brief"] => string(126) "Nd: YAG single crystal is the most important laser crystal, which is widely used in industrial, medical and scientific fields."
    ["application"] => string(370) "Nd: YAG single crystal is the most important laser crystal, which is widely used in industrial, medical and scientific fields. It is the most suitable and commercial laser crystal for continuous, pulse and mode-locked laser. It is also widely used in various solid-state laser systems: frequency doubling continuous wave, high-energy Q-switch, inverted cavity and so on."
    ["content"] => string(7839) "<table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Dimensional tolerance</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: windowtext; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Diameter: &lt; + / - 0.025 mm, length: &lt; + / - 0.5 mm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Flatness</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">λ/ 8 @633nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Surface finish</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">10/5</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Parallelism of luminous surface</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Better than 20 arc sec</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Verticality</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Better than 5 arc min</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Orientation</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">&lt; 111 &gt; crystal direction, tolerance: &lt; ±&nbsp;0.5 °</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:20px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext; word-break: break-all;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Chamfering</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">&lt; 0.1 mm @ 45deg.</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:9px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Coating</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">AR coating, HR Coating</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Residual reflections</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">R&lt;0.2%@1064</span></p><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">HR:R&gt;99.8%@1064,R&lt;5%@808nm</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Luminous aperture</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">&gt; 95% central area</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:27px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-left-color: windowtext; border-right-color: windowtext; border-style: solid; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="262" valign="center"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Wavefront distortion</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-left-color: initial; border-right-color: windowtext; border-top-color: initial; border-bottom-color: windowtext;" width="306" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">&lt; 7mm diameter : &lt; λ/ 8 per inch @ 633nm</span></p><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">7mm diameter : &lt; λ/ 10per inch @ 633nm</span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
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    ["content_detail"] => string(750) "<p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 14px;">Nd: YAG single crystal is the most important laser crystal, which is widely used in industrial, medical and scientific fields. The main advantages are: low output threshold, high gain, high efficiency and low 1064 nm loss; At the same time, it also has the characteristics of high optical quality, good thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance and high mechanical strength, which makes Nd: YAG the most suitable and commercial laser crystal for continuous, pulse and mode-locked laser. Nd: YAG crystal is also widely used in various solid-state laser systems: frequency doubling continuous wave, high-energy Q-switch, inverted cavity and so on.</span></p><p><br/></p>"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(62) "Neodimium doped yttrium aluminum garnet(Nd:YAG) single crystal"
    ["meta_key"] => string(100) "Neodimium doped yttrium aluminum garnet, laser crystala,low 1064 nm loss,pulse and mode-locked laser"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(255) "Nd: YAG single crystal is the most important laser crystal, which is widely used in industrial, medical and scientific fields. The main advantages are: low output threshold, high gain, high efficiency and low 1064 nm loss; At the same time, it also has th"
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    ["feature"] => string(176) "Low output threshold, high gain, high efficiency and low 1064 nm loss; 
High optical quality.
Good thermal conductivity.
Thermal shock resistance.
High mechanical strength."
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  [3] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(2) "32"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(6) "Er:YAG"
    ["brief"] => string(199) "Er3+:YAG crystal is an attractive laser material for eye-safe emission at wavelengths of 1617 and 1645 nm which can be resonantly diode-pumped into the upper laser manifold at 1470 nm and 1532 nm."
    ["application"] => string(413) "CW and Q-switched eye-safe (~1,6 μm) in-band pumped lasers with nearly quantum defect limited efficiency for military applications including LIDAR, telemetry, or active imaging.
Channel waveguide eye-safe (~1,6 µm) in-band pumped lasers with diffraction-limited output for long-distance telemetry and ranging.
CW and Q-switched ~3 µm lasers for oral surgery, dentistry, implant dentistry, and otolaryngology."
    ["content"] => string(8930) "<table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Cubic</span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">12.01 Å</span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Density </span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">4.56<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">±</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: " times="" new="">0.04</span></span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;(g/cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Melt Point</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">197</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">0℃</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Mohs Hardness</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">8.5</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">(<span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: " times="" new="">mohs</span><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Specific Heat Capacity</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-left: 0;text-indent: 0"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0-</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">2</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">0</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">℃</span><span style="font-family: 微软雅黑; font-size: 14px;">)</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">0.59 J/g.cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">3</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:20px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Elastic modulus</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">310 GPa</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:9px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Young&#39;s modulus </span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">3.17X104Kg/mm</span><sup><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">2</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Poisson&#39;s ratio</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p style="margin-left: 0;text-indent: 0"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.3 (est.)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Tensile strength</span></p></td><td valign="top" colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.13~0.26 GPa</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td valign="center" rowspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thermal Expansion</span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">&lt;100&gt;(0~250°C )<!--100--><!--100--><!--100--></span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Direction: 8.2x10-6 /°C</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;1</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">1</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">0&gt;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0~250</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">)</span></span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">7.7x10-6/</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;1</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">11</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&gt;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0~250</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">)</span></span></p></td><td valign="top" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">7.7x10-6/</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C&nbsp;</span></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(68) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Customize upon request.</span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(678) "<p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Er</span><sup><span style="font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">3+</span></sup><span style="font-size: 14px;">:YAG crystal is an attractive laser material for eye-safe emission at wavelengths of 1617 and 1645&nbsp;nm which can be resonantly diode-pumped into the upper laser manifold at 1470&nbsp;nm and 1532&nbsp;nm. Due to the low&nbsp;quantum defect, high slope efficiencies of &gt;80% can be achieved with direct fiber laser or InGaAs/InP pumping. By using heavily erbium-doped (~50 at.%) YAG crystal efficient CW laser operation at ~3&nbsp;µm can be obtained.</span></span></p>"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(32) "Er3+-doped YAG(Er3+:YAG) crystal"
    ["meta_key"] => string(43) "Er3+:YAG,laser crystal,Q-switched, eye-safe"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(199) "Er3+:YAG crystal is an attractive laser material for eye-safe emission at wavelengths of 1617 and 1645 nm which can be resonantly diode-pumped into the upper laser manifold at 1470 nm and 1532 nm."
    ["model"] => string(0) ""
    ["feature"] => string(269) "Isotropic crystal (cubic symmetry).
High thermal conductivity.
Strong absorption bandwidth near 1470 nm corresponding to InGaAsP/InP laser diode emission.
Emission spectra at 1617 nm is free from absorption in the atmosphere.
Custom crystals available upon request."
  }
  [4] => array(28) {
    ["id"] => string(2) "33"
    ["lang"] => string(2) "en"
    ["title"] => string(6) "Ho:YAG"
    ["brief"] => string(143) "Ho: YAG single crystal is one of the earliest 2um laser crystals studied. Its output wavelength is near 2.1um and is in the atmospheric window."
    ["application"] => string(232) "Ho: YAG provides a powerful tool for remote sensing detection and photoelectric countermeasure. At the same time, it is also an ideal light source for coherent Doppler wind radar, differential absorption radar and laser rangefinder."
    ["content"] => string(8762) "<table cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr class="firstRow"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Crystal Structure</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Cubic</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Lattice Constant</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">12.01 Å</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Density </span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">4.56<span style="font-family: 宋体;">±</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="">0.04</span></span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;(g/cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="" vertical-align:="">3</span></sup><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">)</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Melt Point</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">197</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">0℃</span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Mohs Hardness</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">8.5</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">(<span style="font-family: " times="" new="">mohs</span><span style="font-family: 宋体;">)</span></span></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Specific Heat Capacity</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p style="margin-left: 0;text-indent: 0"><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0-</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">2</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">0</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">℃</span><span style="font-family: 微软雅黑; font-size: 14px;">)</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">0.59 J/g.cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">3</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:20px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Elastic modulus</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">310 GPa</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:9px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Young&#39;s modulus </span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">3.17X104Kg/mm</span><sup><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px; vertical-align: super;">2</span></sup></span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Poisson&#39;s ratio</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p style="margin-left: 0;text-indent: 0"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.3 (est.)</span></p></td></tr><tr><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Tensile strength</span></p></td><td colspan="2" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">0.13~0.26 GPa</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td rowspan="3" style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); border-style: solid;" valign="center"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Thermal Expansion</span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); word-break: break-all;" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">&lt;100&gt;(0~250°C )<!--100--><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--><!--100--></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Direction: 8.2x10-6 /°C</span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;1</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">1</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">0&gt;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0~250</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">)</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">7.7x10-6/</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span></span></p></td></tr><tr style="height:5px"><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&lt;1</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">11</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">&gt;</span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">(0~250</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C </span><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">)</span></span></p></td><td style="padding: 0px 7px; border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);" valign="top"><p><span style="font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: 宋体; font-size: 14px;">7.7x10-6/</span><span style="font-family: " times="" new="" font-size:="">°C&nbsp;</span></span></p></td></tr></tbody></table><p><br/></p>"
    ["content2"] => string(68) "<p><span style="font-size: 14px;">Customize upon request.</span></p>"
    ["content_detail"] => string(1870) "<p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">Ho: YAG single crystal is one of the earliest 2um laser crystals studied. Its output wavelength is near 2.1um and is in the atmospheric window. It provides a powerful tool for remote sensing detection and photoelectric countermeasure. At the same time, it is also an ideal light source for coherent Doppler wind radar, differential absorption radar and laser rangefinder.<br/></span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">The output wavelength of Ho and TM laser is about 2 microns, which is close to the absorption peak of water. It has excellent cutting and coagulation effect on human tissue. It can be transmitted by ordinary optical fiber. It is an ideal surgical laser light source. Human tissue pair 2 μ M laser has high absorptivity, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of Nd: YAG.Therefore, when using Ho: YAG laser for medical surgery, it can not only improve the operation efficiency and accuracy, but also reduce the thermal damage area to a smaller size. The free beam generated by holmium crystal can eliminate fat without excessive heat, so as to reduce the thermal damage to healthy tissues. It is reported that holmium laser treatment of glaucoma in the United States can reduce the pain of surgery.</span></p><p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14px; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif;">More than 20 kinds of 2 micron lasers have been approved for clinical use in the United States. It can treat a variety of diseases. 2 micron laser is safe for human eyes and has good atmospheric penetration. It can be used as lidar light source. Its comprehensive performance is better than Nd: YAG and CO<sub>2</sub> lasers.</span></p>"
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    ["meta_title"] => string(40) "Ho-doped yttrium aluminum garnet(Ho:YAG)"
    ["meta_key"] => string(33) "Ho-doped,yttrium aluminum garnet,"
    ["meta_desc"] => string(142) "Ho:YAG single crystal is one of the earliest 2um laser crystals studied. Its output wavelength is near 2.1um and is in the atmospheric window."
    ["model"] => string(0) ""
    ["feature"] => string(335) "Output wavelength close to the absorption peak of water. 
Excellent cutting and coagulation effect on human tissue. 
Can be transmitted by ordinary optical fiber. It is an ideal surgical laser light source. 
Human tissue pair 2 μ M laser has high absorptivity, which is almost three orders of magnitude higher than that of Nd: YAG."
  }
}